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Why Should I Take General Ed Courses?

To lead a satisfying life and enjoy a satisfying career, you will discover that it takes not only special skills in applications such as accounting, finance, marketing and management, but a wide range of interdisciplinary and intellectual skills that come from General Education courses.

Northwood University’s General Education curriculum is much more than just classes you are required to complete, but valuable information you will use in your degree program. Through these courses, you will gain the knowledge and skills necessary to excel as a business professional and leader.

Students studying together in a study room

Courses Offered at Northwood

ART 3050 Beginning Drawing (3 credits)

Drawing fundamentals are explored through hands-on studio experience, introducing a variety of materials and mediums. Techniques include contour drawing, sighting and modeling, creating three-dimensionality (shading, chiaroscuro), understanding positive and negative space, creating texture and mastering linear and aerial perspective. Elements of design and composition are taught through exercises in still life, landscape, portraiture and on-site drawing. Works of master artists will be presented along with interaction with guest artists, which will require some written work. Course may include various field trips to local sites.

ART 3080 Painting (3 credits)

We will explore the color wheel and impact of color choices, exposing students to a working knowledge of color terminology and primary, secondary and tertiary colors, while also introducing color scheme and theory. Analogous, complementary, neutral and monochromatic color concepts will be taught through hands-on painting experiences. Physical properties of color (hue, value, intensity, tint and tone) are discussed, as well as the elements and principles of art (line, color, shape, pattern, rhythm, unity, balance and composition). The student will have opportunities to implement various paint and color techniques through multiple exercises. Field trips to local studios and museums may be incorporated into the syllabus. Course may include various field trips to local sites.

ENG 0900 Developmental Composition (3 credits)

A developmental course for students who demonstrate a need for extra assistance in collegiate writing based on English ACT or SAT scores or a placement exam.ENG 0990 English for Academic Purposes (EAP) (3 credits)

Designed to address the needs of international undergraduate transfer students identified as needing English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction based on Toefl or Ielts scores or a placement exam. The course’s objective is to strengthen the student’s ESL/EAP skills in order to prepare them for academic success in an American university. This course covers grammar, writing, listening, speaking and reading, with special emphasis on meeting the academic expectations of upper-level classes. The course helps students gain confidence and competency in daily communications and personal interactions during the completion of their degree program.

ENG 1150 Composition I (3 credits)

Uses a variety of genres to introduce students to rhetorical awareness focusing on audience and purpose. Readings in fiction and/or nonfiction are used to support writing strategies. A researched argumentative paper using APA documentation is required during the freshman composition sequence in either Composition I, Composition II or both.

Prerequisite: ENG 0900 or minimum ACT English score of 18 or minimum SAT verbal score of 421

ENG 1200 Composition II (3 credits)

Uses analytical, interpretive readings as a basis for refining critical thinking and writing skills. Readings in fiction and/or nonfiction are used to support writing strategies. A researched argumentative paper using APA documentation is required during the freshman composition sequence in either Composition I, Composition II or both.

Prerequisite: ENG 1150

ENG 3110 World Literature I (3 credits)

This course focuses on global literature from ancient times through the 1500s. Works of fiction and nonfiction from a variety of global cultures are included.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

ENG 3120 World Literature II (3 credits)

This course focuses on global literature from 1600 to the present. Works of fiction and nonfiction from a variety of global cultures are included.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

ENG 3200 Report Writing and Applied Business Communications (3 credits)

Focus on improving writing ability with various types of business communications and reports for practical purposes consistent with business norms and conventions. Enhance written communication skills including executive summaries, business correspondence and reporting and presentation of research findings. Includes collecting, organizing, interpreting facts and presenting the findings in a well-documented report. Professional techniques of structuring and presenting business data are emphasized.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

ENG 3600 Applied Communications (3 credits)

Students learn techniques and psychology of effective domestic and cross-cultural business communication, with emphasis on business letters, reports (oral and written), memoranda and electronic submissions.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

ENG 3850 Special Topics in Literature (3 credits)

In these courses, students refine their reading, writing and thinking abilities through responding, interpreting, analyzing and evaluating literature. The English department chair arts and sciences division chair and academic dean on each campus are responsible for approving specific courses for this elective.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

ENG 4010 Communication and Interpersonal Relations (3 credits)

Examines the fundamental connection between the use of language and the way people communicate, think and act. To understand the deeply symbolic nature of language, students study modern semantics and focus on how to interpret spoken and written words, especially by examining how the meaning of words is influenced by physical, verbal and historical contexts. Students increase their self-awareness and their abilities to communicate, think and act effectively and ethically.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

EXF 1150 Tennis (1 credit)

Designed to teach the rules, terminology and strategy of tennis. During the course, different fundamental aspects of tennis will be taught to allow students to actively learn and participate. The class usually begins with a brief lecture followed by class activity for the duration of the period.

EXF 1420 Swimming (1 credit)

Instruction on the basic skills of swimming and water safety. Students will learn the following strokes: elementary backstroke, freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and sidestroke.

EXF 1510 Weight Training (1 credit)

Designed to teach proper forms of weight lifting and weight training. Students will develop individual training programs and learn to strengthen various parts of the body. Topics will include functional anatomy during various lifts, the physiology of training methods and the biomechanics of the body during training.

EXF 1600 Dancercise (1 credit)

Teaches students how to coordinate aerobic fitness and conditioning activities with music. Proper cardiovascular exercises will be demonstrated, and students will complete these exercises coordinated to music. Students will learn to monitor their own cardiovascular health indicators.

EXF 1700 Creative Dance (1 credit)

Introduction to creative dance with a focus on providing an open, inviting atmosphere for dance and movement exploration, as well as the experience of dance improvisation, composition and choreography. This course also includes an introduction to the basic elements of modern dance techniques.

EXF 1800 Scuba (2 credits)

Consists of evenly divided pool and classroom sessions. Students learn the theory of diving and all safety aspects of the sport. Each diver must provide a mask, fins and snorkel, SSI Log Book, and the Sport Diver Manual with workbook.

Prerequisite: Average swimming abilities and good general health

EXF 1810 Scuba II (1 credit)

Leads to certification. Consists of pool and classroom review of diving safety skills and a review of Scuba I. Divers participate in a minimum of 6 open water lake dives to complete the requirements for the Scuba School International “Open Water Diver” certification. Each diver must provide a mask, fins, snorkel, wet suit, mitts, boots and chemical glow lights.

Prerequisite: EXF 1800 or certification from a nationally recognized scuba diving association

EXF 1900 Bowling (1 credit)

Teaches the rules, terminology, skills and strategy of bowling. Students actively participate and learn the different fundamental elements of bowling.

EXF 2001 First Aid (1 credit)

Trains students on how to respond in emergency situations and give care to an adult who needs assistance. Upon satisfactory completion of the course, each student will receive a first aid certification card valid for 3 years from the date of course completion.

EXF 2010 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – Adult (1 credit)

Teaches students how to respond in emergency situations and give care to an adult who needs assistance or cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Upon satisfactory completion of the course, each student will receive an adult CPR certification card valid for 1 year from the date of course completion.

EXF 2015 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – Child & Infant (1 credit)

The child and infant CPR class prepares students to respond in emergency situations and give care to an infant or child who needs assistance or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Upon satisfactory completion of the course, each student will receive an infant and child CPR certification card valid for 1 year from the date of course completion.

EXF 2020 Professional Lifestyle (1 credit)

Presents students with lifestyle issues that can affect health and job performance. Topics include anatomy and physiology, nutrition, cardiac function, stress recognition and management, and health and wellness issues.

EXF 2400 Basketball (Co-Ed) (1 credit)

Presents the rules, terminology and strategy of basketball. Students actively participate and learn different fundamental aspects of basketball, including ball handling, shooting techniques and offensive and defensive team strategies.

EXF 2500 Volleyball (Co-Ed) (1 credit)

Introduction to the fundamental skills and strategies of organized volleyball, designed to further develop individual skills for the beginner and/or intermediate player. Students will also learn to practice effective communication with teammates.

EXF 2620 American Flag Football (Co-Ed) (1 credit)

Teaches the rules and techniques of standard American football and incorporates them into a flag football format.

EXF 2630 Soccer (Co-Ed) (1 credit)

An introduction to the fundamental skills, rules and strategies of organized soccer designed to further develop individual skills for the intermediate player. Students will work on the development of individual skills and team communication and strategies: dribbling, passing, trapping, heading, shooting, goalkeeping and team strategies in offense and defense.

EXF 2700 Kung-Fu (1 credit)

Students learn the 400-year-old, seven-star praying mantis-style Chinese martial arts. During the course of training, students study the basic self-defense technique, theories and history of the mantis system.

EXF 2710 Advanced Kung-Fu (1 credit)

Designed for those students who have completed the previous Kung Fu class training and wish to advance their martial arts techniques.

Prerequisite: EXF 2700

EXF 2720 Tai Chi For Health, Wellness, and Self-Defense (1 credit)

Introduces students to the ancient martial art of Tai Chi. Short lectures will make students aware of its history, current research into its health benefits, appreciation of the Chinese cultural aspects, as well as its utility in the workplace for both stress reduction and employee fitness. Students learn Tai Chi stretching, exercises, breathing techniques and form training. Self-defense applications of the form will also be covered.

EXF 2730 Advanced Tai Chi For Health, Wellness, and Self-Defense (1 credit)

Continues to perfect the techniques and applications started in EXE 2720. Students will finish the second half of the Wu Tai Chi Form.

Prerequisite: EXF 2720

EXF 2800 Golf (1 credit)

Instruction in the basic principles of golf, along with a thorough coverage of rules and etiquette.

HIS 2100 Foundations of the Modern World I (3 credits)

Introduces students to the historical development of Western civilization and its traditions. Major themes include the evolution of social, economic, religious and political systems to fit the changing conditions of each age, as well as the expression of changing values and beliefs through intellectual and artistic endeavors. The course traces the development of Western civilization from ancient Near Eastern cultures to the beginning of the modern era in the 1600s.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

HIS 2150 Foundations of the Modern World II (3 credits)

Introduces students to the historical development of Western civilization and its traditions. Major themes include the evolution of social, economic, religious and political systems to fit the changing conditions of each age, as well as the expression of changing values and beliefs through intellectual and artistic endeavors. The course traces the development of Western civilization from the beginning of the modern era in the 1600s to the present.

Prerequisites: HIS 2100

HIS 2160 Foundations of the Modern World (3 credits)

Introduces students to the historical development of Western civilization and its traditions. Major themes include the evolution of social, economic, religious and political systems to fit the changing conditions of each age, as well as the expression of changing values and beliefs through intellectual and artistic endeavors. The course traces the development of Western civilization from the beginning of the modern era in the 1600s to the present.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

HIS 2175 The History of the United States of America (3 credits)

The history of the United States is presented beginning with the European background and first discoveries. Follows the pattern of exploration, settlement and development of institutions throughout the colonial period and the early national experience. The course continues through the Civil War; Reconstruction; the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries and the development of the United States as a world power. The study includes social, cultural, economic, intellectual and political aspects of American life.

Prerequisite: ENG 1200

HIS 3010 The Founding of the American Republic (3 credits)

Covers the historical development of the United States from colonial times through the beginning of the 19th century. Emphasizes the historical context of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution as examples of the unique expressions of American political, social and economic systems. The course will focus on primary sources and on selected individuals who helped formulate these ideals.

Prerequisite: HIS 2150 or HIS 2160

HIS 3100 Africans in America 1607-1861 (3 credits)

Examines the experiences of Africans in America from the founding of the first colonies to the Civil War as evidenced through the historical, economic, political, social, religious and literary values of the period. The course is focused on democracy, economics, freedom, leadership, identity, race and racism from 1607 to 1861.

HIS 3130 The American Civil War and Reconstruction (3 credits)

Examines the American Civil War, including its causes, as well as the military, political, social and economic aspects of the war and its continuing legacy. The course also covers Reconstruction following the war.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HIS 3150 The Era of the Vietnam War (3 credits)

Examines the Vietnam War, including its causes, as well as the military, political, social and economic aspects of the war and its continuing legacy for both Vietnam and the United States.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HIS 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in history. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

HIS 4020 Contemporary Global Issues (3 credits)

An examination of the historical basis and context for contemporary global issues. Topics may include political, economic, scientific, technological, cultural and social challenges.

Prerequisite: HIS 2150, HIS 2160, or HIS 2175

HIS 4040 European Cultural History (3 credits)

Explores the development of European history and culture through focused visits to historical and cultural sites such as museums, historical parks, memorials, military sites and cathedrals, as well as through film and performance. Taught during the annual Semester in Europe program.

Prerequisite: HIS 2100 or HIS 2150

HUM 2010 Fine Arts Appreciation: Visual Arts and Architecture of Western Culture (3 credits)

This course is designed as an introduction to the Arts, such as (but not limited to) literature, music, visual, architecture, theatre, dance and cinematic. This course focuses on the study and appreciation of the fine and performing arts and the ways in which they reflect the values of civilizations.

HUM 3010 Ideas That Shaped America (3 credits)

Explores ideas from America’s European heritage that shaped modern America. Course taught only in the Semester in Europe Study Abroad program.

HUM 3020 Survey of Western Art (3 credits)

Explores Western art through firsthand visits to European cultural centers and classroom lectures during the Semester in Europe Study Abroad program.

HUM 3100 Creativity (3 credits)

An overview of the creative process and its relationship to both personal and professional achievement. Theories of creativity are summarized, covering such topics as the creative personality, creative problem solving and creative team work. Students will acquire the resources and techniques for stimulating creative thinking and facilitating creative problem solving. The course will encompass both individual and group exercises to stimulate creative thinking.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3110 The Search For Meaning Through the Humanities (3 credits)

An examination of the human search for meaning through perennial questions and their possible answers as expressed in intellectual, artistic and social endeavors.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3120 Introduction to Art (3 credits)

A survey of visual media, past and present, with particular emphasis on expressionism and realism and how they mirror society. Technique as well as theory is covered.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3130 Introduction to Music (3 credits)

The study of music from the past and present and its impact on our culture. Included is a survey of music from historical periods and the relationship of this auditory art form to other areas of the humanities.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3140 Introduction to Modern Art (3 credits)

A chronological survey of major art movements, beginning with Romanticism and culminating in the most recent developments in painting and sculpture.

HUM 3150 Introduction to Film Art (3 credits)

A survey of past and present films with particular emphasis on the elements of form and style. A history of film and survey of genres and styles is included.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3200 Critical Appreciation of the Arts (3 credits)

Focuses on the special role of the arts, including painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, drama, music, dance, film and photography as forms of human expression. Attention is given to definitions of art and various critical approaches to the arts in order to establish a foundation for critical response.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3210 General Humanities (3 credits)

Beginning with the advent of the Renaissance, this course traces the humanistic aspects of our intellectual development, as that development is manifested in painting, sculpture, architecture, music, literature, philosophy, political theory and spiritual experience.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3220 Design Principles (3 credits)

Exploration of human reaction to visual stimuli and the role of design to solve problems and make decisions in business and personal life. The goal is that students will make better functional, practical and economic visual judgments.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

HUM 3230 Understanding Western Architecture (3 credits)

This course is a comparative examination of the built environment as a cultural, technological and artistic achievement. Explores basic design and technical concepts that allow buildings to stand. In addition, the course surveys the history of architectural development in the West, from prehistoric times to the present. The focus is on architecture as an expression of culture; a systematic statement of values.

Prerequisites: HIS 2100, HIS 2150

HUM 3500 Honors Seminar (3 credits)

Critical study of various forms of artistic expression to sharpen students’ ability to form divergent points of view.

Prerequisites: 60 credit hours completed and approval of academic dean

HUM 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in humanities. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

LAW 2500 Environmental Regulations and Public Policy (3 credits)

This course will provide an overview of environmental law, regulation and international policies, focused on those areas that directly impact commercial and industrial enterprise. The course will also help students understand the relationship between environmental protection and societal, political, economic and ethical concerns that shape regulatory policy.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and MGT 2400

LAW 2800 Mock Trial I (1 credit)

Emphasis is placed on building the skills necessary to compete in American Mock Trial Association Invitational Tournaments. Each student will be a part of a team responsible for the development of a case to be tried in a court of law, including opening statement, introduction of testimony, physical, and demonstrative evidence, direct and cross examination of witnesses, closing arguments, etc. Students will participate in competitions both on and off campus.

LAW 2810 Mock Trial II (2 credits)

Emphasis is on continuing development of skills necessary to compete in regional American Mock Trial Association Invitational Tournaments. Students who have taken LAW 2800 will have already competed at invitational tournaments sponsored by the American Mock Trial Association. During this course, as a member of the Regional Team, students will perform the same skills introduced in the LAW 2800 course at a higher level. Students will participate in competitions both on and off campus.

Prerequisite: LAW 2800

LAW 2820 Mock Trial III (2 credits)

Emphasis is on continuing development of skills necessary to compete in the national American Mock Trial Association Invitational Tournament. Students who have taken LAW 2800 will have competed at Invitational Tournaments, and those who have taken LAW 2810 will have competed at the Regional Tournament. During this course, as a member of the Regional, National and Championship Team(s), students will consistently perform the skills introduced in LAW 2800 and LAW 2801 at a higher level, reflecting their prior experience. Students will participate in competitions both on and off campus.

Prerequisites: LAW 2800 and 2810

LAW 3000 Business Law I (3 credits)

Basic principles of law applicable to the business world emphasizing ethics, the U.S. judicial system, contracts, sales, property, agency and business organizations. The goal of the course is to provide the basic knowledge and understanding of legal theories and practical applications of rules/laws as they pertain to the decision-making aspects of administration and professional conduct in business.

LAW 3025 Business Law For Accounting Majors (3 credits)

The course will focus on two main areas. First, the course will undertake a critical exploration and examination of the regulation of the accounting profession. This will include research, application and evaluation of the regulation of for-profit financial accounting, auditing of private and public entities, not-for-profit financial accounting and taxation. Second, students will focus on specific areas of business law most applicable to the practicing accountant, including business organizations, securities law and professional liability. Additionally, the course will examne basic principles of law applicable to the business world, emphasizing contracts and sales, as well as period after sales, bailments, negotiable instruments, agency, partnerships, corporations, insurance and real estate.

LAW 3026 Business Law For Accounting Majors (1 credit)

The course will focus on specific areas of business law most applicable to the practicing accountant, including business organizations, securities law and professional liability. Additionally, the course will examine basic principles of law applicable to the business world, emphasizing contracts and sales, as well as period after sales, bailments, negotiable instruments, agency, partnerships, corporations, insurance and real estate.

Prerequisite: LAW 3000

LAW 3050 Business Law II (3 credits)

An in-depth study of law with special emphasis on those points of law that would be of particular importance to students planning careers in accounting, especially those considering qualifying as Certified Public Accountants. Provides students with the basic knowledge and understanding of legal theories and practical applications of rules/laws as they pertain to the decision-making aspects of administration and professional conduct of business, especially in the accounting industry.

Prerequisite: LAW 3000 or LAW 3025

LAW 3500 Commercial and Real Estate Law (3 credits)

This course provides an overview of real estate transactions and acquisitions for commercial real estate, including site selection, appraisals, purchase contracts, lease negotiations and contracts, mortgage financing, loan documentation, escrows and titles. Transactions related to franchise agreements will be a specific feature of the course.

Prerequisite: LAW 3000

LAW 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in law. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

LAW 4050 International Law (3 credits)

Overview of the international legal environment, including an emphasis on common and code law systems and their impact on the conduct of international business. Explores international jurisdiction, world legal agreements and bodies, treaty agreements and treaty law.

Prerequisites: LAW 3000 and ECN 3000

MTH 0980 Developmental Mathematics (3 credits)

A developmental math course for students who have not been placed directly in college algebra or finite math. This course is delivered in modules, each module focusing on a different required competency. Students will be required to complete each module at an 80 percent (80%) mastery level in order to complete this course. Students not completing all modules successfully in one semester will be required to enroll in the course the following semester until all modules have been mastered.

Prerequisite: ACT Math score of 23 or less or equivalent SAT Math score

MTH 1100 Finite Mathematics (3 credits)

Uses elementary functions to explain mathematical models. Quadratics, systems of equations and mathematical models of business finance are used to facilitate understanding mathematical techniques used in business and other applications. Additional topics are selected to prepare students for the statistical and quantitative reasoning used by professionals. Probability concepts and summation notation are explored to provide a strong basis for statistics. Also covered are the logic and set theory concepts used in quantitative reasoning.

Prerequisite: Minimum ACT Math score of 24 or minimum SAT Math score of 580 or MTH 0980 or successful completion of the placement examination

MTH 1150 College Algebra (3 credits)

Completes the sequence of algebraic topics necessary for a mathematically literate person. An understanding of the Real Number System is extended to complex numbers required to solve quadratic equations. Students will learn how to solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula, how to solve logarithmic and exponential equations, how to solve systems of equations in two or more variables using matrix operations, how to solve a system of linear inequalities and how to apply the notation and principles of sequences and series. A modeling approach is used with an emphasis on functions and applied problem solving.

Prerequisite: Minimum ACT Math score of 24 or minimum SAT Math score of 580 or MTH 0980 or successful completion of the placement examination

MTH 2310 Statistics I (3 credits)

A thorough treatment of descriptive statistics; an introduction to the concepts of probability, probability distributions and sampling distributions; and an introduction to inference through estimation by confidence intervals. Students will determine which statistical technique is appropriate depending on the data type and level of measurement, analyze the data and then interpret the results. Appropriate technology and/or software will be required.

Prerequisites: MIS 1050 or MIS 1600 and MTH 1100 or MTH 1150

MTH 3100 Calculus I (3 credits)

The basics of differential and integral calculus and its application in solving problems. Linear and nonlinear functions are reviewed; the concepts of limits and continuity, derivatives of functions and their applications, finding maxima and minima and definite and indefinite integrals are covered.

Prerequisite: MTH 1100 or MTH 1150 or ACT Math score of 29 or higher or equivalent SAT Math score

MTH 3200 Calculus II (3 credits)

Understanding and utilization of multivariable calculus and matrix algebra techniques commonly used in business, economics and the social sciences.

Prerequisite: MTH 3100

MTH 3340 Statistics II (3 credits)

A continuation and expansion of concepts covered in MTH 2310. It includes hypothesis testing of proportions, means and variances of one and two populations, including matched pairs, correlation, simple linear regression, chi-square tests, multiple regression, forecasting, statistical process control, and analysis of variance. Appropriate technology and/or software will be required.

Prerequisite: MTH 2310

MTH 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in mathematics. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

NSC 1100 Introduction to Ecological Principles (3 credits)

This course is designed as an introductory course presenting the main concepts of ecosystem function and ecological interrelationships. Students will develop an understanding of the complex relationships between physical, chemical and biological components of ecosystems. This understanding will provide the basis for later application of human interaction and sustainability concepts to the natural world.

NSC 2100 Environmental Science (3 credits)

Designed to give an overview of basic environmental principles. Concepts central to the biological and physical sciences will be covered to provide a background for understanding the environment. The basic environmental issues of human population growth, biodiversity, natural resources and energy use, and their role in the well-being of the environment will be highlighted. Ethical, social, economic, and political interrelationships will also be discussed. This material will provide a good foundation for sound decisions regarding environmental issues.

NSC 3100 Climate Change (3 credits)

Examines the current scientific knowledge of climate change and its implications for society as a whole. Specific topics include energy balance, components of climate, measuring climate and modeling climate. The consequences of climate change from biological, social and economic perspectives will be examined, as well as political, corporate and individual responses to this issue.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 3200 Understanding Biotechnology (3 credits)

Biotechnology is the latest technological revolution to transform many facets of our society. Its impacts on the environment, agriculture, nutrition, industry and health will advance social and individual health and technology beyond anything imaginable. This course reviews the science behind biotechnology, including cell biology, genetics, genetic behavior and genetic manipulation. It presents the technologies and laboratory processes that enable biotechnology discovery and development. Finally, it explores specific applications of biotechnology, including food, human health, industrial and environmental applications.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 3250 Biodiversity (3 credits)

Examines the three components of biodiversity: species diversity, genetic diversity and ecosystem diversity, including the implications and impacts that human activities are having on each of them. Specific concepts of evolution, speciation, adaptive radiation, biogeography and ecology are also addressed. The value of biological diversity is examined from both an economic as well as an ecological perspective.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 3330 Tropical Natural History (3 credits)

Examines the various tropical ecosystems of the world with a primary focus on the neotropical rainforests. Examines the climate, geology, geography, ecology, biodiversity, economic potential and environmental concerns of these ecosystems. Their values, including ecological, economic and cultural, will be examined in order to establish a framework to understand the urgent need for their conservation for future generations and the health of the planet in general.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 3400 Environmental Study in Mexico (3 credits)

A broad presentation of environmental science, integrating technical and social concepts and issues as they relate to the Mexican environment. The ecological, economic, social and ethical aspects of current issues are scrutinized from a scientific base.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 3450 Environmental Study in Southeast Asia (3 credits)

A broad presentation of environmental science, integrating technical and social concepts and issues in the Southeast Asian environment. The ecological, economic, social and ethical aspects of current issues are scrutinized from a scientific base.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in natural science. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

NSC 4020 Oceanography (3 credits)

A broad presentation of oceanographic concepts and processes, including exploration, physical, chemical and biological aspects. Current societal issues pertaining to the world’s oceans will also be covered.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 4030 Field Ornithology (3 credits)

An overview of the scientific study of birds and the important contributions to the field made by amateur birders. The course focuses on the field identification of local and regional species plus an overview of worldwide groups. In addition, this course includes ecological, behavioral and biological topics including anatomy, territoriality and nesting, migration, trophic interactions and conservation. The recreational and economic impacts of bird watching and feeding are addressed.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 4040 Ecology (3 credits)

Students study and become familiar with the geology, indigenous plants, animals and various ecosystems representative of the region, and they will identify the relationships involved between the living and nonliving factors in their environment.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

NSC 4060 Science and Technology (3 credits)

A science course aimed at the non-science major. An overview of various scientific disciplines and processes, the creation and commercialization of scientific knowledge and the impact of scientific discovery on business and society. The course provides students with basic information necessary to work in a technology-based environment.

Prerequisites: NSC 2100 and 60 credit hours completed

PHL 3000 Philosophy of Religion (3 credits)

Explores the essence and meaning of religion as a pervasive phenomenon in human societies, faith and reason, nature of divinity, arguments for and against God’s existence, religious knowledge and experience, morality and the problem of evil.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

PHL 3100 Ethics (3 credits)

Study of moral decision-making and theories that define our responsibilities. This course will examine sources for moral value, e.g. law, authority, culture, tradition, religion and the problems associated with ethical subjectivism, as well as prominent historical approaches to ethics in the West.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

PHL 3300 Logic (3 credits)

Entails a thorough study of traditional Aristotelian logic, propositional logic, induction, informal fallacies and scientific method. Topics discussed include use and misuse of statistics, tools of basic economic analysis, memory training, fundamental principles of formal deductive reasoning and rules of argumentation.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

PHL 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in philosophy. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

PHL 4100 Philosophy of American Enterprise (3 credits)

Examines the role of freedom, individual responsibility, property rights, entrepreneurship and free markets in moral, intellectual and economic development. Course materials draw on philosophical arguments, economic theory and historical examples to demonstrate how these factors work together to create civil society.

Prerequisites: 90 credit hours completed, ECN 2210, ECN 2220

PHL 4105 Critical Philosophical Problems (3 credits)

Explores critical philosophical problems of civilization with emphasis on their current status. Problems include the relationship of the increase of knowledge and the use of science and technology in our societies, human rights, war, peace, poverty, prosperity, private property, government control and religion, as well as other selected philosophical problems with international significance, implications and relationships.

Prerequisite: 60 credit hours completed

PE 1010 Intercollegiate Football (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of football and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1020 Intercollegiate Basketball (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of basketball and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1030 Intercollegiate Baseball (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of baseball and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1040 Intercollegiate Golf (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of golf and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1050 Intercollegiate Tennis (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of tennis and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1060 Intercollegiate Lacrosse (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of lacrosse and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1070 Intercollegiate Track (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of track and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1080 Intercollegiate Softball (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of softball and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1090 Intercollegiate Volleyball (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of volleyball and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1100 Intercollegiate Cross Country (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of cross country and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements. Participation in the intercollegiate series is subject to varsity squad and conference rules.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1130 Physical Conditioning (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of physical conditioning and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1260 Soccer (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of soccer and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1290 Cheerleading (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of cheerleading and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PE 1300 Hockey (1 credit)

This course provides a study of the theory and principles of sports – rules‚ techniques and equipment related to the conduct of hockey and etiquette, sportsmanship and the appreciation of competition as character-building elements.

Prerequisite: Coach approval

PSC 2010 Introduction to American Government (3 credits)

A survey of the institutions of American government, including legislative, executive and judicial branches, interpretation of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, federalism, political parties, the federal bureaucracy, elections and interest groups.

PSC 3000 Political Philosophy (3 credits)

A philosophical examination of major social and political concepts such as freedom, authority, justice, law, obligation and rights. Emphasis on important philosophers and ideologies in the history of political philosophy.

Prerequisite: 60 Credit hours completed

PSC 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in political science. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

PL 1010 Prior Learning Assessment (1 credit)

A writing course that explores learning styles, the writing process and portfolio development to verify college-level learning. A portfolio with the following elements will be produced: autobiography, résumé, areas of study, documentation/verification items and evaluation breakdown from the prior learning assessment evaluator(s). Graded pass (P)/fail (F) only.

Prerequisite: Approval of advisor

PSY 3000 Principles of Psychology (3 credits)

Provides students the opportunity to analyze their own personalities, interpersonal relationships and values by reviewing major psychological theories. Experiential exercises are integrated throughout the course to apply theory to “real life” situations.

PSY 3010 Applied Psychology (3 credits)

An overview of major psychological concepts and techniques relevant to the application of organized knowledge about human behavior. This learning is used to improve productivity and personal satisfaction on the job. Classical theories of human behavior are summarized, covering such topics as perception, learning, personality, conflict, motivation, teamwork, empowerment and wellness. Business psychology is applicable in any work setting, such as a company, government agency, hospital, hotel/restaurant or educational institution.

PSY 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in psychology. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

SOC 3000 Principles of Sociology (3 credits)

Introduces students to the field of sociology and the sociological perspective. Provides students with three important tools: a basis for understanding how society operates; an understanding of the core sociological concepts, methods and theories and the ability to understand society from an objective point of view. Topics for this course include sociological theory, groups, family, bureaucracies, social class, power, deviance, interaction, inequality, organization, socialization, minority relations, community and social change.

SOC 3010 World Culture and Customs (3 credits)

Designed to give students a global perspective by examining cultural regions of the world. Students will explore and analyze geography, economics, history, religion/philosophies and value systems, as well as cultural factors such as language, art and music. The rationale for this course is to prepare students for the ever-growing interdependence of the world in which they live and work and to help prepare them to be responsible and participating citizens of the 21st century global society.

SOC 3020 Women in American Culture (3 credits)

Examines the changing image of women – women as seen by other women, women as seen by men and individual women as they see themselves.

SOC 3450 Culture of Leadership (3 credits)

An analysis of organizational factors that influence leadership and management skills. Key aspects include formal and informal groups, norms, sanctions, organizational change, morale, function of committees and teams, role of unilateral decisions, teamwork, empowerment and ethical philosophy. Includes a self-appraisal of leadership and management strengths and areas for development.

SOC 3500 Cultural Anthropology (3 credits)

Study of how humans are affected by and can change culture. Topics include ethnography, language and communication, ecology and subsistence, kinship and family, identity, roles and groups, globalization and culture change and applied anthropology. Theoretical and historical analysis will build upon or serve as a foundation for SOC 3010, which has a more contemporary focus.

SOC 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in sociology. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

SPN 2010 Spanish I (3 credits)

The first of a two-semester sequence designed specifically for beginning university students with no previous language study. Emphasis is placed on acquisition and application of basic language skills.

SPN 2015 Spanish II (3 credits)

Continuation of the first-year language sequence in Spanish. Course design places emphasis on development of the target language in the five goal areas of foreign language education: communication, cultures, connections, comparisons and communities.

Prerequisite: SPN 2010

SPN 3010 Spanish III (3 credits)

The first of a two-semester sequence designed for students who have a background of at least one year of college level Spanish or its equivalent. The objective is to further acquisition and application of the target language at the intermediate level. Authentic materials in the target language reflect contemporary topics relevant to contemporary global issues.

Prerequisite: SPN 2015

SPN 3015 Spanish IV (3 credits)

Completes the second-year language sequence in Spanish. Course emphasis is placed on continued development of proficiency in the target language through grammar review, composition, selected readings, small group discussion and short speeches on topics of interest.

Prerequisite: SPN 3010

SPC 2050 Speech (3 credits)

Introduces students to the basics of public speaking. How can stage fright be handled? What techniques are necessary to engage an audience? How can the needs of different audiences be considered? How can visuals be designed and used effectively? What can be done so that verbal and nonverbal delivery is fluid? Addressing these questions requires students to examine their personal presentations in order to set improvement goals. The study will help engage students in the overall workings of public speaking. The course requires strict attendance, formal presentations and impromptu presentations.

SPC 2800 Competitive Speech I (1 credit)

Emphasis is placed on building the skills necessary to compete in speech and Competitive Speech tournaments. The course includes selection of a speech category and topic, research, organizing and writing.

SPC 2810 Competitive Speech II (1 credit)

Emphasis is placed on continuing to build and improve the skills necessary to compete in speech and Competitive Speech tournaments. The course includes selection of a speech category and topic, including research, organizing and writing. New topics must be selected for each subsequent enrollment in Competitive Speech courses.

Prerequisite: SPC 2800

SPC 2820 Competitive Speech III (1 credit)

Emphasis is placed on continuing to build and improve the skills necessary to compete in speech and Competitive Speech tournaments. The course includes selection of a speech category and topic, including research, organizing and writing.

Prerequisite: SPC 2810

SPC 2830 Competitive Speech IV (1 credit)

Emphasis is placed on continuing to build and improve the skills necessary to compete in speech and Competitive Speech tournaments. The course includes selection of a speech category and topic, including research, organizing and writing

Prerequisite: SPC 2820

SPC 3000 Advanced Competitive Speech (3 credits)

Course designed for students who have completed Competitive Speech I-IV and who have a high level of achievement in Competitive Speech competitions. Students serve as mentor and coach to lower-level students under the guidance of the Director of Competitive Speech.

Prerequisites: SPC 2050, SPC 2830, Instructor approval

SPC 3850 Special Topics (1-3 credits)

Various topics in speech. These may be one-time or occasional course offerings.

Prerequisite: Dependent on specific course content

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